Preventing And Treating Psoriasis
Theres no cure for psoriasis, but psoriasis treatments can help keep symptoms at bay. One of the main ways to manage psoriasis is by establishing a daily bathing and moisturizing routine that works for you. Using special soaps, shampoos, and lotions to keep your skin well-hydrated will reduce the itching that you experience from psoriasis.
Your doctor might also recommend treating psoriasis outbreaks with:
- Over-the-counter steroid creams like hydrocortisone cream
- Prescription topical medications to help control and prevent outbreaks
- , which uses UV light to slow skin growth
- Biologic injectibles, which help to mediate the autoimmune response that can cause flare-ups
If you have psoriasis, its critical that you learn your triggers, which might include certain foods, seasonal changes, or injuries. Once you know your triggers, do your best to avoid them to prevent flare-ups.
Getting A Proper Diagnosis
When making their diagnosis, doctors may visually inspect the affected area and take small skin samples . They may also check for other unusual skin patches. People with inverse psoriasis often have another form of psoriasis elsewhere on their bodies, so finding a psoriasis plaque or pustular spots could help a doctor decide whether the patch is likely to be more psoriasis or more jock itch.
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How Does Tinea Capitis Infection Occur
Following invasion of the keratinised stratum corneum of the scalp , the fungus grows downwards into the hair follicle and the hair shaft. It penetrates the hair cuticle and typically invades the hair shaft in one of three ways:
- Ectothrix infection: the dermatophyte grows within the hair follicle and covers the surface of the hair. Fungal spores are evident on the outside of the hair shaft and the cuticle is destroyed. M. canis is an ectothrix dermatophyte.
- Endothrix infection: the dermatophyte invades the hair shaft and grows within it. Fungal spores are retained inside the hair shaft, and the cuticle is not destroyed. T. tonsurans is an endothrix dermatophyte.
- Favus infection: a chronic dermatophyte infection caused by T. schoenleinii and characterised by clusters of hyphae at the base of the hairs, with air spaces in the hair shafts. Clinically there is yellow crusting around the hair shaft.
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Symptoms For Nail Psoriasis
Fingernail psoriasis is more common than toenail psoriasis. It is characterized by yellowing and pits all over the nail surface.
Psoriasis nail is more likely to detach your nail from the nail bed, leading to nail loss. Fungal infections rarely lead to nail detachment.
The nail may break or entirely pull apart, leaving a gap between your fingertip and the nail.
Pits become deeper with time and sometimes even holes are formed. Nails become very dry and many ridges are formed, altering the appearance of your nails.
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What Causes The Conditions
The ringworm infection comes from a fungus that takes up residence on your skinâs outer layer. Besides person-to-person contact, you can get it from your pet or another animal or from an object that someone with ringworm has used, like a towel or a hairbrush. Itâs rare but possible to pick up the fungus from soil if you were exposed to it for a long time.
We still donât exactly understand why someone might develop psoriasis. Like other autoimmune diseases, itâs probably a combination of the genes youâre born with and things in the world around you that act as triggers. Those can include infections, an injury to the skin, smoking, drinking, and even stress.
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Scalp Fungus And Hair Loss
Scalp fungal infections often cause hair loss. If you have a fungal infection on your scalp, you may experience patchy hair loss, with small, round bald patches forming in certain parts of your scalp.
You may notice that the hair in affected areas of your scalp becomes brittle and breaks off from its roots easily. In some cases, scalp fungus can cause patches of small black dots to develop as strands of hair literally break off at your scalp.
Its important to understand that hair loss caused by a fungal infection is very different from the hair loss caused by male pattern baldness. Although fungal infections can cause hair loss, they dont have any effect on DHT or other hormones.
Although most of the hair loss associated with scalp fungus is temporary, scalp fungal infections that cause inflammation can cause scar tissue to develop. This may lead to a type of permanent hair loss called scarring alopecia.
Because of the risk of permanent hair loss, its important to take action quickly if you notice any of the symptoms of a scalp fungal infection.
Risk For Deep Fungal Infections During Il
Drs. M.P. Lee and K.K. Wu are from the Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Orange. Dr. E.B. Lee is from the Department of Internal Medicine, Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital, California. Dr. J.J. Wu is from the Dermatology Research and Education Foundation, Irvine, California.
Drs. M.P. Lee, K.K. Wu, and E.B. Lee report no conflict of interest. Dr. J.J. Wu is or has been an consultant, investigator, or speaker for AbbVie Inc Almirall Amgen Arcutis Biotherapeutics Boehringer Ingelheim Bristol Myers Squibb Dermavant Sciences Ltd Dr. Reddys Laboratories Eli Lilly and Company Galderma Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc LEO Pharma Novartis Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Sanofi Genzyme Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd UCB and Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC.
The eTable is available in the Appendix online at www.mdedge.com/dermatology.
Correspondence: Jashin J. Wu, MD .
- The use of IL-17, IL-12/IL-23, and IL-23 inhibitors for psoriasis and other inflammatory conditions does not appear to increase the risk for deep fungal infections.
- Physicians should still be cautiously optimistic in prescribing these medications, as IL-17 and IL-23 play a central role in immunologic defenses, particularly against fungi.
- A high index of suspicion should be maintained for patients from endemic areas who are being treated with biologics.
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What Is The Treatment For Scaling Scalp
The treatment will depend on the diagnosis and can be as simple as working with your provider to find the right prescription topical. Systemic medications can be indicated in certain fungal infections or psoriasis if it involves other body sites. Sun damage and skin cancer on the scalp will be treated more or less aggressively depending on the type. If the scaling is diffuse and consistent with background sun damage and actinic keratoses, they can be treated with light therapy or sometimes topical creams. If it has progressed beyond this stage, Mohs surgery can be done in our office for the most effective treatment with the best cosmetic outcome.
Don’t live with a scaling scalp. Make an appointment at Absolute Dermatology & Skin Cancer Center today by calling the nearest office or send us a message to book an appointment on our contact page.
References and Resources:
Does Anti Dandruff Shampoo Cause Hair Loss
Anti-dandruff shampoos contain ingredients like selenium sulfide that may contribute to further hair loss. They are potent ingredients aimed at killing the fungus on your scalp. Such ingredients are no harm when used in low concentrations for limited duration. Prolonged usage of such shampoos can increase hair loss.
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How To Tell If A Psoriasis Treatment Is A Scam
If youre considering a product and concerned that its a scam, pick up the phone. Takeshita suggested talking to your doctor about possible new treatments. If you suspect you’ve been prey to a bogus psoriasis treatment, you can report it to the health care section of your state attorney generals office for investigation. According to Joe Peters, a spokesman for the New Jersey Attorney Generals office, the complaints surrounding these products usually include allegations of misrepresentations surrounding a so-called free trial offer, deceptive or useless return policies, unauthorized charges, refusal to accept returns or refund money, and issues with efficacy, such as the product not working as advertised.
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Causes Of Fungal Infection
Different types of fungi can cause fungal infections.
Dermatophytes are a common type of fungal group. You may know one of the infections that they cause by its common name, ringworm. Despite the name, ringworm is caused by a fungus, not a worm.
Fungal infections are typically superficial and can affect your hair, skin, nails, or anywhere you come into contact with the fungus. Theyre very contagious and usually picked up from direct contact with any of the following:
- another person who has a fungal infection
- public pools or bathrooms
- an animal that has a fungal infection
- unwashed floors, clothes, or childrens toys
Because fungus spreads from contact, people who walk around barefoot are more likely to pick up a fungal infection on their feet.
What Is Scalp Fungus
Scalp fungus, or tinea capitis, is a type of fungal infection that affects your skin and hair. As with other common fungal infections, it develops when a specific type of fungus starts to grow on the outermost layer of your skin.
A similar type of infection called tinea barbae, which develops on your face, chin and neck, can affect your beard area.
Scalp fungus is often referred to as scalp ringworm. Despite its name, theres no worm involved — instead, this type of infection is caused entirely by contagious fungi.
According to the CDC, about 40 different species of fungi may cause tinea infections that affect your scalp, groin, feet and other parts of your body. Scalp fungal infections are often caused by the microsporum and trichophyton fungal genera.
Scalp fungus can cause a variety of symptoms, including:
Dry, scaly areas of skin
The severity of these symptoms can vary depending on a number of factors. Sometimes, scalp fungus causes gray, scaly patches of skin to develop across your scalp with a small amount of noticeable hair loss.
In more severe cases, a scalp fungal infection can cause inflammation, lesions and secondary infection with bacteria.
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What Is The Treatment For A Fungal Skin Infection Vs Eczema
Fungal Skin Infection Treatment
A wide array of treatment options are available to treat candidiasis. Options include creams, lotions, ointments, tablets or capsules, troches , and creams. Talk to a doctor to find the option that is right for you.
Medications used to treat yeast infections generally fall into two main categories.
- Azole medications are a family of antifungal drugs that end in the suffix “-azole.” They block the manufacture of ergosterol, a crucial material of the yeast cell wall. Without ergosterol, the yeast cell wall becomes leaky and the yeast die. Because ergosterol is not a component of human membranes, azoles do not harm human cells.
- Polyene antifungal medications include nystatin and amphotericin B. Nystatin is used for thrush and superficial candidal infections. Doctors reserve amphotericin B for more serious systemic fungal infections. The antifungals work by attaching to the yeast cell wall building material, ergosterol. These medications then form artificial holes in the yeast wall that cause the yeast to leak and die.
Removing exacerbating factors is a good place to start when managing eczema at home. This may be as simple as changing the laundry detergent to one that is fragrance free or as difficult as moving to a new climate or changing jobs.
Avoid wearing tight-fitting, rough, or scratchy clothing.
Anything that causes sweating can irritate the rash. Avoid strenuous exercise during a flare.
What Is Scalp Psoriasis
Psoriasis can affect your scalp, and the red, scaly patches it causes can flake off like dandruff does. There are a few differences, though:
- Itâs chronic: Psoriasis is long-lasting while dandruff may come and go.
- Itâs more scaly than flaky. If itâs mild, scalp psoriasis looks like scaly, silvery, or powdery patches that may come off in tiny pieces. More serious outbreaks can be red and painful.
- It may spread. Psoriasis patches can creep past your hairline to your forehead, the back of your neck, or the skin around your ears. You may have psoriasis patches on other parts of your body, too, like your elbows, legs, feet, palms, or back.
- Itâs an autoimmune disease. Psoriasis is caused by your bodyâs immune system: White blood cells that should fight off diseases attack your skin cells instead.
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Nail Color And Structure Changes
Keratin is a protein that promotes the development of the skin and nails. Nail psoriasis sometimes causes too much keratin to grow under the nail. This overgrowth is called subungual hyperkeratosis.
People with hyperkeratosis may notice a white, chalky substance under the nail. When this occurs in the toenails, the pressure of shoes pushing down on the nails might cause pain.
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What Causes Tinea Capitis
Tinea capitis is caused by dermatophytic fungi capable of invading keratinised tissue, such as the hair and nails. While over 40 different species of dermatophytes are known to exist, only a small number are associated with tinea capitis. Dermatophytes may be classified into three broad categories, according to host preference: anthropophilic species , zoophilic species , and geophilic species .
In New Zealand, Europe, and Asia the most common causative agent is the zoophilic species Microsporum canis which originates in cats.
Examples of other zoophilic fungi that cause tinea capitis include:
- M. nanum
- M. distortum
- T. equinium
- T. verrucosum .
Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte that is the most common cause of tinea capitis in the United States. T. violaceum is an anthropophilic fungus seen in New Zealand in patients who have migrated from Africa or the Middle East.
Examples of other anthropophilic fungi that cause tinea capitis include:
- T. soudanese
- T. rubrum
- M. audouinii.
Geophilic fungi, such as M. gypseum, originate in the soil and are rare causes of tinea capitis.
Nail Fungal Infection Requires:
- exclusion of contact with an infected person, use only personal bath accessories, shoes, socks, etc
- use of slippers in steam rooms, saunas, public showers, etc
- consulting a doctor in case of any changes in the nail structure or unpleasant odor.
Ignoring pathological changes, not going to a specialist in time, and self-treatment lead to the development of complications. It delays the period of remission and can provoke a relapse in either case.
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What Causes Scalp Fungus
Like other fungal infections, scalp fungus develops when contagious fungi are transmitted onto your scalp and hair from other people, animals or objects.
Fungi can be found in almost every environment. When you come into contact with a fungus, it can spread onto your skin, causing an infection to develop. Often, it only takes a moment for a fungus to make its way onto your body and start growing.
Common sources of this type of fungal infection include:
People. Its possible to develop scalp fungus after contact with other people with fungal infections. The fungi that cause this type of infection can spread onto your hands from other people, then move to your head when you touch your scalp or hair.
Animals. Ringworm infections are common in animals, including dogs, cats and many farm animals. Many fungal infections are especially common in younger animals, such as puppies and kittens.
Items that are shared with other people, such as towels, clothing, combs, hairbrushes and other personal care products, can spread fungal infections.
The environment. Certain areas, such as damp surfaces in communal locker rooms or showers, are breeding grounds for the fungi that cause scalp ringworm and many other fungal infections.
Although scalp ringworm can affect anyone, its most common in children and people with weak immune systems. Like other fungal infections, scalp fungus tends to spread more often during the warmer periods of the year.
What Are The Complications Of Tinea Capitis
Alopecia can result in psychosocial distress for the patient, especially when scarring alopecia following inflammatory tinea capitis results in permanent bald patches. A secondary rash may occur with inflammatory tinea capitis, particularly after initiating antifungal treatment this is known as a dermatophytide or id reaction. Rarely, erythema nodosum has been known to occur. Secondary bacterial infection may develop.
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What Are The Symptoms Of A Fungal Skin Infection Vs Eczema
Fungal Skin Infection Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of a candidal infection can vary depending on the location of the infection.
- In infants and adults, a candidal infection can appear many different ways.
- Candidal organisms naturally live on the skin, but a breakdown of the outer layers of skin promotes the yeast’s overgrowth. This typically occurs when the environment is warm and moist, such as in diaper areas and skin folds. Superficial candidal skin infections appear as a red flat rash with sharp, scalloped edges. Smaller patches of similar-appearing rash, known as “satellite lesions” or “satellite pustules,” are usually nearby. These rashes may be hot, itchy, or painful.
- Intertrigo appears as softened red skin in body fold areas.
- Candidal paronychia appears as nail fold swelling.
- Mucocutaneous candidiasis appears with nail abnormalities.
- Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica occurs in the finger webs.
Medical professionals sometimes refer to eczema as “the itch that rashes.”