Nail Psoriasis Or A Fungal Infection
If youve got toenails or fingernails that have changed in appearance, you may be wondering what the culprit is. It may be difficult to tell what youre dealing with as some nail conditions appear similar to others.
Nail psoriasis and nail fungal infections are two conditions that are sometimes confused. Its important to get a correct diagnosis, however, as the treatment for these two conditions is different.
Molecular Identification Of Malassezia Species
2.3.1. DNA Extraction
Genomic DNA was extracted from the skin scrapings and dandruff or from colonies subcultured on Dixon’s agar by using glass beads and phenol/chloroform techniques . In brief, a loopful of the skin scale or dandruff was transferred to a 1.5mL Eppendorf tube, including 300L glass beads and 300L lysis buffer . Afterwards, the specimens were centrifuged for 1min at 7,000rpm and then 300L of phenol/chloroform was added, followed by vortexing and centrifugation for 6min at 5,000rpm. In the following, the supernatant was transferred to a new tube, and the same amount of chloroform was added to it and centrifuged for 7min at 6,000rpm. Subsequently, the supernatant was transferred to a new tube, and then alcohol and 3M sodium acetate were added and stored at 20 °C for 1h and centrifuged for 5min at 10,000. The supernatant was removed, and 500L alcohol 70% was added to the pellet, which was then centrifuged for 12min at 12,000rpm. At the final stage, the supernatant was discarded, and 50L double distilled water was added and kept at 20 °C.
2.3.2. Amplification of D1/D2 Region of 26S rDNA
All amplicons were subjected to sequence analysis. They were purified by the ethanol purification method, and cycle sequencing reactions were performed in a forward direction . The sequencing products were evaluated with Chromas 2.4 and analyzed using the NCBI BLAST searches against fungal sequences existing in DNA databases .
The Best Treatment For Nail Fungus
Combining several therapies is usually the best option: laser therapy is an excellent choice associated with topical or oral treatments.
Is recommended to use a staggered treatment. That is, start with topical medication and if theres a recurrence, start taking oral meds.
Finally, we must redo lab test to make sure the therapy has been successful. Its crucial that the patient knows that the nail appearance wont be the same for a while, even though the culture comes back negative.
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Measles: A Facial Rash That Can Cover The Body
Like guttate psoriasis, measles also follow symptoms of an upper respiratory infection in children and cause a skin rash of small, red spots. However, the measles skin rash usually starts on the face and spreads down to cover the body and is accompanied by fever, cough, and a runny nose. Measles rash is also flat, while the rash of psoriasis is typically raised. Measles is caused by a virus and is contagious, though the measles vaccination has made this a rare disease in the United States.
What Is Nail Psoriasis And Who Does It Affect
Nail psoriasis or psoriatic nail dystrophy is a form of psoriasis that affects the nails. Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin condition that causes skin-cell growth to speed up and the cells to pile up on the surface of the skin. It affects about 2-3 percent of people worldwide.Nail psoriasis is not infectious and typically occurs in about 50 percent of people who have psoriasis elsewhere on their body, often developing some years after psoriasis has appeared on the skin. Although, in some cases nail psoriasis can occur in people with no other signs of psoriasis. Nail psoriasis is a risk factor for psoriatic arthritis.
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Let’s Take A Look At Risk Factors
As discussed earlier, having psoriasis can put you at risk for nail fungal infections. While the only risk for getting nail psoriasis is having psoriasis on your hands and feet, there are quite a few risk factors for nail fungus.2,4
- Age: You are more likely to get nail fungus infections as you get older. This can because your nails grow slower, your circulation is not as good, and because you have been exposed to more fungi than when you were younger.
- Having other health issues: Patients with cancer, diabetes, poor circulation, and poor immune systems are more likely to have nail fungal infections.
- Exposure to damp environments: Fungus thrives in damp environments. If you notice that your socks are damp every time you take them off, you have to wear gloves a lot for your job, or you often walk barefoot in places like locker rooms, or pools, you are at higher risk for nail fungal infections.
- Wearing artificial nails: Make sure that your salon uses new or freshly sterilized instruments every time you get your nails done. Additionally, acrylic nails can separate from the natural nail, leaving a place for fungus to grow.
Main Differences Between Ringworm And Psoriasis
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Causes Of Fungal Infection
Different types of fungi can cause fungal infections.
Dermatophytes are a common type of fungal group. You may know one of the infections that they cause by its common name, ringworm. Despite the name, ringworm is caused by a fungus, not a worm.
Fungal infections are typically superficial and can affect your hair, skin, nails, or anywhere you come into contact with the fungus. Theyre very contagious and usually picked up from direct contact with any of the following:
- another person who has a fungal infection
- public pools or bathrooms
- an animal that has a fungal infection
- unwashed floors, clothes, or childrens toys
Because fungus spreads from contact, people who walk around barefoot are more likely to pick up a fungal infection on their feet.
How Is Atopic Dermatitis Treated
When outbreaks do occur, doctors may recommend creams, such as corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors to prevent itching and allow the skin to heal. It is important to not overuse corticosteroid creams, so always follow the directions of your physician. If a flare-up is severe, doctors may also prescribe oral corticosteroids, such as prednisone. If the skin becomes infected, doctors may prescribe antibiotic cream to treat the infection.1
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Ringworm Of The Scalp
Ringworm of the scalp, or tinea capitis, is a more intensive fungal infection than ringworm that appears on other areas of the skin. The fungi that cause this ringworm not only invade the skin of the scalp but also hair follicles. It can cause the involved hair to fall out, leaving a bald spot with a ringworm-type rash in the center.
Tinea capitis does not respond well to topical creams. It has to be treated with oral antifungal medications.
Seborrheic Dermatitis: Itchy Scaly Patches
A psoriasis skin rash tends to itch, burn, and feel sore. Patches of psoriasis commonly occur on your knees and elbows. Many people also have scalp psoriasis. The common skin rash seborrheic dermatitis also causes scaly, itchy skin patches. It can occur on your scalp, where it may be called dandruff, or on your face and chest. While doctors don’t know the exact cause of seborrhea, it occurs across the age spectrum, in babies as well as in adults, and is usually treated with creams and lotions.
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What Are The Similarities Between Bacterial And Fungal Skin Infection
- Bacterial and fungal skin infections are two common types of skin infections.
- These medical conditions are caused due to overgrowth and invading of normal skin microorganisms through cuts, burns, and lesions.
- Both medical conditions can be treated with over-the-counter medications.
- These skin infections are treated by dermatologists.
If You Think You Might Have Ringworm Or Psoriasis
Talk to your doctor if you have a rash that doesn’t get better or worsens, no matter what it looks like, because both conditions need specific treatment.
For mild ringworm, youâll probably apply an antifungal medication to your skin. For more severe infections, you may need pills.
There isnât a cure for psoriasis, but medications can ease mild symptoms. Stronger drugs like biologics, which target specific parts of your immune system, can clear plaques completely for many people.
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Eczema: Red Itchy Irritated Skin
Like psoriasis, eczema is a chronic skin condition that often causes intense itching. Scratching causes redness and inflammation of the skin, leading to a worsening of the eczema. Scratching can also cause a secondary bacterial infection. The most common type of eczema is caused by a reaction to irritants like detergents, soaps, or household cleansers. So if you have eczema, you should be careful to use mild soap and regularly moisturize your sensitive skin. Your doctor may prescribe a steroid cream or other medications if eczema is severe.
What Is Bacterial Skin Infection
Bacterial skin infection is caused due to invasion of the skin by bacteria. Bacterial skin infection normally starts as small red bumps, and later it increases slowly in size. Bacterial skin infection is fairly common in society. Some bacterial infections are mild and can be easily treated with topical antibiotics. Other bacterial skin infections are life-threatening. Therefore, serious infections need oral antibiotic prescriptions from a certified medical practitioner. Dermatologists and rheumatologists treat more complicated skin infections.
Figure 01: Bacterial Skin Infection Cellulitis
Most of these bacterial skin infections are caused due to Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. In most complicated cases, bacterial skin infections can spread from the skin to the bloodstream. This condition is called septicaemia. Septicemia is a life-threatening condition. The most common bacterial skin infections are cellulitis , erysipelas , bacterial folliculitis , furuncles , carbuncles , impetigo , erythrasma , and MRSA skin infection . The current antibiotic treatments recommendations for bacterial skin infections are penicillinase-resistant penicillins, cephalosporins, azithromycin, clarithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and fluoroquinolone.
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How To Treat Nail Fungus
There are many topical antifungal creams, liquids, and ointments available in the market. In severe cases, your doctor may prescribe antifungal pills such as fluconazole, griseofulvin, terbinafine, itraconazole, etc. Sometimes, a doctor may suggest the removal of the infected nail to avoid the spread of the fungus.
Psoriasis And Ringworm Treatment
Ringworm can often be treated with over-the-counter antifungal creams. If that doesnt help, a doctor may prescribe stronger antifungal ointments or oral antifungal medications.
Treating psoriasis can be more complex than treating ringworm. It may take some time for you and your doctor to figure out what works best for your body. In some cases, topical therapies, like corticosteroid creams or retinoids, are enough to improve the condition. Light therapy, or , that delivers controlled doses of UVB rays can also sometimes help. Other people diagnosed with psoriasis may need injected steroids, oral or injected methotrexate , or injected biologics to see improvement for their skin condition.
If a person is diagnosed with both ringworm and psoriasis at the same time, they should not use steroid treatments until the ringworm has been successfully eliminated. Otherwise, the steroids may suppress the bodys immune response to fight the fungal infection and cause it to grow significantly faster. Once the fungus is gone, the person can treat their psoriasis as needed.
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So When Is That Itch A Fungus
What do jock itch, ringworm, thrush and athletes foot have in common? They all cause itching, but there is another thing they often get mistaken for eczema or psoriasis.
If the above-mentioned conditions all cause similar symptoms, why cant we treat them the same? Surely a cream for eczema or skin dryness fights any sort of skin condition? The answer is it doesn’t work that way.
What is a fungal infection?
Fungal infections are caused by fungi, a group of microscopic organisms that thrive on the dead keratin of the skin, hair or nails.
Fungal infections can spread from one person to another, or through public spaces such as shared showers or swimming pools.
Different fungi cause different fungal infections. One of the most common forms of fungal infections is athlete’s foot , which is caused by ringworm and causes redness, itching and peeling around the toes.
Athlete’s foot between the toes
What is eczema?
Eczema is a disease caused by inflammation of the skin and the skin’s inability to retain adequate moisture. The result is a dry, troublesome rash that itches, which may occur on almost any part of the body.
The redness, itchiness and rash caused by eczema isn’t contagious. Eczema is not related to fungus, but it’s possible to also have a fungal infection on top of eczema. In that case, your doctor will have to take a skin swab to determine whether a fungal infection is present or not.
Eczema up close
What is psoriasis?
A plaque of psoriasis on the hand
R75 per month
What Is The Difference Between Bacterial And Fungal Skin Infection
November 16, 2021 Posted by Dr.Samanthi
The key difference betweenbacterial and fungal skin infection is that bacterial skin infection appears as small red bumps, which later increase slowly in size, while fungal skin infection appears as scaly, itchy rashes, or discoloration of the skin
Skin is the largest organ of the body. Its main function is to protect the body from infections. However, the skin sometimes becomes infected due to various pathogens. Normally, skin infections are caused due to various types of germs such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The symptoms may vary from mild to serious. Mild symptoms are treated by over-the-counter medications and home remedies. However, the serious symptoms require medical attention. Bacterial and fungal skin infections are two common types of skin infections.
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Oral Or Injectable Medications
For moderate to severe cases of psoriasis where other treatments dont work, your doctor may prescribe an oral or injected medication. These medications reduce inflammation and slow or stop skin cell growth by altering your immune system.
Options include oral medications like methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin, and Otezla or injectable biologics like Humira, among others.
Some non-biologics that your doctor may prescribe are:
As with any treatment, there are possible side effects you should be aware of. Its important to talk to a doctor to determine the best course of treatment for you. Theyll also keep an eye on your overall health for any signs of potentially dangerous side effects.
Or Maybe Athletes Foot Has Taken Your Little Piggies Hostage
Athletes foot occurs when a fungal infection affects the skin on your feet.
Signs of athletes foot include:
- itchy blisters
- dry skin on the soles and sides of the feet
- burning and itching between the toes or on the soles
- cracking, peeling skin on the feet
Toenail fungus infections can often arise from athletes foot.
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Symptoms For Nail Psoriasis
Fingernail psoriasis is more common than toenail psoriasis. It is characterized by yellowing and pits all over the nail surface.
Psoriasis nail is more likely to detach your nail from the nail bed, leading to nail loss. Fungal infections rarely lead to nail detachment.
The nail may break or entirely pull apart, leaving a gap between your fingertip and the nail.
Pits become deeper with time and sometimes even holes are formed. Nails become very dry and many ridges are formed, altering the appearance of your nails.
Scalp Psoriasis Vs Ringworm Of The Scalp
According to the National Psoriasis Foundation, 45 percent to 56 percent of people living with psoriasis develop the condition on their scalp. Scalp psoriasis can affect the scalp itself, as well as the hairline, forehead, back of the neck, and skin around the ears, causing raised, discolored, scaly plaques that may itch. Flaking and thick scales are common, which can look like an extreme case of dandruff.
Ringworm can also develop on the scalp. Unlike psoriasis, however, ringworm on the scalp affects both the scalp and hair shafts. Ringworm of the scalp is most common in toddlers and school-aged children. Symptoms may vary, but it usually causes itchy, scaly, bald patches on the head. The scalp may also have silvery or gray scales and patches of broken hair, as well as small black dots if the hair has broken off right at the scalp. There are usually enlarged lymph nodes associated with this fungal infection of the scalp.
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Molecular Identification Of Candida Species
2.2.1. DNA Extraction
Genomic DNA was extracted using the boiling method . In brief, a loopful of fresh colonies was suspended in 80L of double distilled water and boiled for 10 minutes and then centrifuged for 6 minutes at 6500rpm. The supernatant containing DNA was used for PCR.
2.2.2. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region was amplified by a PCR mixture containing 5L of 10×reaction buffer, 1.5mM MgCl2, 0.4mM dNTPs, 30pmol ITS1 and 30pmol ITS4 primers , 2.5U of Taq polymerase, and 3L DNA in a final volume of 50L. The PCR cycling conditions were as follows: an initial denaturation phase at 95°C for 5min, followed by 30 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 30s, annealing at 55°C for 45s, and extension at 72°C for 1min, with a final extension phase at 72°C for 7min. PCR products were digested with the HpaII restriction enzyme . Five microliter of each PCR products and 10L of RFLP amplicons were separated by gel electrophoresis on 1.5% and 2% agarose gel , respectively.